Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT


RF indoor distribution and its application

14 August 2002 Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT

Grintek Antennas has long been a pioneer and a leading supplier of antennas and RF equipment to the South African GSM telecommunications industry. The company has designed a family of products specifically for RF indoor distribution.

These products range from the various antennas, a line of tap-off couplers, power splitters, 900/1800 MHz low loss combiners, attenuators and even amplifiers. The company has a highly skilled development team that is actively pursuing innovative products to enhance mobile networks' competitive advantages.

The application

With the increase in RF telecommunication system solutions and the demand for more capacity, the need to supply RF coverage inside buildings has also increased. Different methods of RF distribution exist, namely fibre-optic, leaky feeders or cable networks with an array of smaller antennas, to name a few. Of the indoor distribution network solutions, the cable and antenna arrays is still the most cost effective solution. This is also called 'DAS' (for distributed antenna system).

Current new developments such as WAP, GPRS, WIG and VPN are already pushing frequency usage to full capacity. The ability to contain RF inside a building is advantageous as it increases capacity, minimises cell interference and allows re-use of the frequency spectrum. An indoor distribution network can be designed in such a way that frequencies can be re-used not only inside the same building, but also in adjacent buildings. Power levels must then be optimised within buildings to make this possible.

A well-designed indoor distribution network in a building can be one of the most cost-effective ways to increase overall capacity and increase the client base for network providers and, at the same time maximise spectrum use.

Indoor distribution products

The Grintek antenna indoor distribution product range consists of a range of indoor antennas and a full range of couplers, packaged as single or multiport devices. In addition, indoor distribution network design software is also available as an aid to network designers and maintainers.

The antennas used in indoor distribution networks are of two types: a 2 dBi omni-directional antenna and a wall-mounted 7 dBi directional flat panel antenna. These antennas are tri-band antennas, covering the GSM900, GSM1800 and UMTS frequencies.

On the directional couplers, coupling levels in the range of -3 to -30 dB are available. The units can be supplied with one or two equal power output ports. All these components cover the personal communication bands from 824 MHz to 2170 MHz (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. The illustration shows some single tap-off couplers, dual tap-off couplers, splitters and various indoor antennas
Figure 1. The illustration shows some single tap-off couplers, dual tap-off couplers, splitters and various indoor antennas

A software tool is available to assist in the design of an indoor distribution network. The inputs needed for this software are the antenna nodes, the relative power levels at each antenna, and the feeder cables lengths and types. The program then calculates the optimal network distribution solution, without using any attenuators. Power levels inside the building can then be optimised to facilitate frequency re-use.

This software tool is also very handy in maintenance or improvements to the indoor distribution network. Measured power levels can be compared to predicted power levels, making the program a valuable tool in fault-finding in the network.

Grintek Antennas has extensive experience in the manufacture of antennas and RF products and in addition to this, the company can offer customers support and advice regarding the implementation of antennas and RF products in their networks.

For more information: Grintek Antennas, 012 674 3500, antenna@grintek.com





Share this article:
Share via emailShare via LinkedInPrint this page

Further reading:

RF amplifier for linear and saturated applications
28 October 2020, RFiber Solutions , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
The MAPC-A1103 is a high-power GaN-on-silicon-carbide HEMT D-mode amplifier suitable for DC to 2,7 GHz frequency operation. The device supports both CW and pulsed operation with peak output power levels ...

Read more...
Antennas from Linx available from RS
25 November 2020, RS Components (SA) , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
RS Components is now stocking a comprehensive range of antennas from wireless technology specialist, Linx Technologies. Linx, headquartered in Oregon, USA, produces antennas that enable design engineers ...

Read more...
Major update to GNSS firewall software strengthens protection
25 November 2020, Comtest , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
Critical infrastructure systems including power utilities, financial services, mobile networks and transportation rely on Global Positioning System (GPS)-delivered timing to ensure ongoing operations. ...

Read more...
The difference between RF limiters and attenuators
25 November 2020, RF Design , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
Both RF limiters and attenuators reduce the power of an RF signal. However, they do so in different ways that are key to understanding their use. These components are often used to protect sensitive RF ...

Read more...
RTLS tag module for real-time positioning
25 November 2020, Altron Arrow , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
Inpixon announced the launch of its newest smart tag module, the swarm bee LE V3, supporting a range of indoor and outdoor location applications including real-time location systems (RTLS). This is ...

Read more...
Antenna selection and design for small IoT devices
25 November 2020, Avnet Abacus , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
IoT devices are typically small and often have a severely limited power budget to operate for long periods from a small energy source such as a primary coin cell. While careful selection of ICs and modules, ...

Read more...
Connectivity for IoT Devices with SoftSIM platform
25 November 2020, Otto Wireless Solutions , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
IoT device vendors are facing more and more complex cellular connectivity issues these days. Manufacturing is often outsourced to third-party factories and finished devices are being distributed to many ...

Read more...
Otto Wireless Solutions’ evolution into a wireless connectivity powerhouse
25 November 2020, Otto Wireless Solutions , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
Otto Wireless Solutions, established in 2010, has gradually evolved into a South African powerhouse of industrial wireless connectivity, offering solutions which cover multiple industries with its suite ...

Read more...
Nordic supports development of Amazon Sidewalk devices
25 November 2020, RF Design , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
Nordic Semiconductor is cooperating with Amazon to develop Bluetooth Low Energy (Bluetooth LE) solutions for Amazon Sidewalk. Amazon Sidewalk is a neighbourhood network designed to help customer devices ...

Read more...
4G USB device gateway makes IoT retrofitting easy
25 November 2020, Gemalto IoT (Cinterion Wireless Modules) , Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
As 2G and 3G networks phase out around the world, the Cinterion DGL61-W USB Device Gateway offers a simple and powerful solution for retrofitting existing IoT applications while providing seamless evolution ...

Read more...