mobile | classic
Dataweek Electronics & Communications Technology Magazine

Follow us on:
Follow us on Facebook Share via Twitter Share via LinkedIn


Electronics Buyers' Guide

Electronics Manufacturing & Production Handbook 2019


RF indoor distribution and its application
14 August 2002, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT

Grintek Antennas has long been a pioneer and a leading supplier of antennas and RF equipment to the South African GSM telecommunications industry. The company has designed a family of products specifically for RF indoor distribution.

These products range from the various antennas, a line of tap-off couplers, power splitters, 900/1800 MHz low loss combiners, attenuators and even amplifiers. The company has a highly skilled development team that is actively pursuing innovative products to enhance mobile networks' competitive advantages.

The application

With the increase in RF telecommunication system solutions and the demand for more capacity, the need to supply RF coverage inside buildings has also increased. Different methods of RF distribution exist, namely fibre-optic, leaky feeders or cable networks with an array of smaller antennas, to name a few. Of the indoor distribution network solutions, the cable and antenna arrays is still the most cost effective solution. This is also called 'DAS' (for distributed antenna system).

Current new developments such as WAP, GPRS, WIG and VPN are already pushing frequency usage to full capacity. The ability to contain RF inside a building is advantageous as it increases capacity, minimises cell interference and allows re-use of the frequency spectrum. An indoor distribution network can be designed in such a way that frequencies can be re-used not only inside the same building, but also in adjacent buildings. Power levels must then be optimised within buildings to make this possible.

A well-designed indoor distribution network in a building can be one of the most cost-effective ways to increase overall capacity and increase the client base for network providers and, at the same time maximise spectrum use.

Indoor distribution products

The Grintek antenna indoor distribution product range consists of a range of indoor antennas and a full range of couplers, packaged as single or multiport devices. In addition, indoor distribution network design software is also available as an aid to network designers and maintainers.

The antennas used in indoor distribution networks are of two types: a 2 dBi omni-directional antenna and a wall-mounted 7 dBi directional flat panel antenna. These antennas are tri-band antennas, covering the GSM900, GSM1800 and UMTS frequencies.

On the directional couplers, coupling levels in the range of -3 to -30 dB are available. The units can be supplied with one or two equal power output ports. All these components cover the personal communication bands from 824 MHz to 2170 MHz (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. The illustration shows some single tap-off couplers, dual tap-off couplers, splitters and various indoor antennas
Figure 1. The illustration shows some single tap-off couplers, dual tap-off couplers, splitters and various indoor antennas

A software tool is available to assist in the design of an indoor distribution network. The inputs needed for this software are the antenna nodes, the relative power levels at each antenna, and the feeder cables lengths and types. The program then calculates the optimal network distribution solution, without using any attenuators. Power levels inside the building can then be optimised to facilitate frequency re-use.

This software tool is also very handy in maintenance or improvements to the indoor distribution network. Measured power levels can be compared to predicted power levels, making the program a valuable tool in fault-finding in the network.

Grintek Antennas has extensive experience in the manufacture of antennas and RF products and in addition to this, the company can offer customers support and advice regarding the implementation of antennas and RF products in their networks.

For more information: Grintek Antennas, 012 674 3500,

  Share on Facebook Share via Twitter Share via LinkedIn    

Further reading:

  • Free software for viewing S-parameters
    28 August 2019, RFiber Solutions, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    At this year’s International Microwave Symposium in Boston, Massachusetts,pSemi (formerly Peregrine Semiconductor), announced it is offering the industry free beta software for viewing S-parameters. ...
  • What are metamaterials and how do they relate to antennas?
    28 August 2019, RF Design, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    Metamaterials are an increasingly researched topic, especially where it pertains to modern antenna structures. However, there is a lot of confusion about exactly what metamaterials are and how they are ...
  • Li-Fi illuminates the way to higher data rates
    28 August 2019, TRX Electronics, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    Radio spectrum is a precious resource and it quickly gets filled up. It did not take long for users of Wi-Fi in urban areas to understand how interference from nearby routers would affect the communications ...
  • Managing the IoT on an energy budget
    28 August 2019, Altron Arrow, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT, DSP, Micros & Memory
    Historically, users wanted MCUs because they could process data and solve problems faster than a human could. MCUs also help make products more convenient and consistent in behaviour. The microcontroller ...
  • Accounting for PIM with distributed antenna installations
    28 August 2019, RF Design, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    Passive intermodulation (PIM) distortion is the result of discontinuities, metal-to-metal contact, and material properties that lead to nonlinear characteristics of typically linear passive transmission ...
  • FiRa Consortium seeks to revive UWB
    28 August 2019, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    A new consortium has been launched in an effort to resurrect UWB (Ultra-Wideband) technology, which gradually faded into obscurity following its initial release due mainly to its inability to compete ...
  • Project kickstarts SA’s use of TV white spaces
    28 August 2019, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    The US Trade and Development Agency (USTDA) has awarded a grant to support a project to help improve Internet access to rural areas of South Africa. The grant, which focuses on facilitating export opportunities ...
  • iCorp Technologies launches its new IoT slogan
    28 August 2019, iCorp Technologies, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    create |connect |communicate, iCorp Technologies’ new slogan, was launched on 1 August 2019. This comes as a very deliberate progression from the company’s previous slogan, ‘inspire| innovate | implement,’ ...
  • Connectorised RF amplifier and filter modules
    28 August 2019, RFiber Solutions, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    Atlanta Micro has launched a new line of connectorised modules for some of its most popular parts. These modules are made of aluminium and offer RF shielding along with field-replaceable SMA connectors ...
  • High-frequency RF couplers
    28 August 2019, RF Design, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    Pasternack has launched a new series of high-frequency couplers that are ideal for 5G telecommunication, automotive radars, satellite communication, point-to-point radios and aerospace applications. The ...
  • GNSS boards for dead-reckoning
    28 August 2019, Electrocomp, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    The Locosys RTK-4671-SHDR/MHDR is a high-precision GNSS RTK (global navigation satellite system real-time kinematics) solution targeting the smart driving and lane-level navigation markets. The newly ...
  • Standalone multi-radio modules
    28 August 2019, RF Design, Telecoms, Datacoms, Wireless, IoT
    The NINA-W10 series from u-blox comprises standalone multi-radio 2,4 GHz MCU (microcontroller) modules that support Wi-Fi 802.11b/g/n and Bluetooth v4.2 (Bluetooth BR/EDR and Bluetooth low energy) communications. ...

Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd
1st Floor, Stabilitas House
265 Kent Ave, Randburg, 2194
South Africa
Publications by Technews
Dataweek Electronics & Communications Technology
Electronics Buyers’ Guide (EBG)

Hi-Tech Security Solutions
Hi-Tech Security Business Directory

Motion Control in Southern Africa
Motion Control Buyers’ Guide (MCBG)

South African Instrumentation & Control
South African Instrumentation & Control Buyers’ Guide (IBG)
Terms & conditions of use, including privacy policy
PAIA Manual


    Classic | Mobile

Copyright © Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd. All rights reserved.