mobile | classic
Dataweek Electronics & Communications Technology Magazine

Follow us on:
Follow us on Facebook Share via Twitter Share via LinkedIn


Electronics Buyers' Guide

Electronics Manufacturing & Production Handbook 2019


New applications for energy harvesting
29 April 2009, News

Energy harvesting (EH) or scavenging is the use of ambient energy to provide electrical power for small electronic and electrical devices. The technologies employed variously convert human power, body fluids, heat differences, vibration or other movement, dirt, vegetation, ultraviolet, visible light or infrared to electricity. Most are in the laboratory and many are solutions looking for problems, yet practical applications of some harvesting technologies have been around for some time. They vary from the bicycle dynamo to the solar powered calculator or road sign.

Proven solutions often store the energy usually either with a capacitor, as with some bicycles, or with a rechargeable battery as with some wind-up lanterns. However, certain wind-up radios manage this with clever clockwork that releases the energy at a required steady rate. We therefore have a considerable repertoire of energy harvesting technologies and uses today but there is a tsunami wave of new technologies and applications that will be both affordable and usable in the next few years. A multibillion dollar market awaits.

The emerging applications are analysed by sector in the new IDTechEx report, 'Energy harvesting and storage for electronic devices 2009-2019'. They include:

1. Buildings - a huge market, where over 500 000 wireless control devices with no battery or AC mains connection have already been sold. These sharply reduce upfront and ongoing costs, including huge gains in the cost of energy used for airconditioning etc, in buildings.

2. 90% of envisaged uses of wireless sensor networks (WSN) are impractical without energy harvesting. These mesh networks are rarely feasible because, in the biggest projects envisaged, such as those where nodes are embedded in buildings and machines for life or on billions of trees, the batteries would be inaccessible or prohibitively expensive to access.

3. Getting almost free power for electronics and lighting to Africa where batteries are not affordable; indeed, they are sometimes not even obtainable.

4. Bionics and sensors are needed in the human body that stay there for the life of the patient. These are the focus of huge new research efforts.

5. Mobile phones and laptop computers have batteries that frequently go down. Indeed, the power situation gets worse as more functionality is added, this inconvenience involving two billion people.

In all these applications there is now an encouraging conjunction of progress by which new forms of lighting and electronics need far less electricity and new forms of energy harvesting are better able to provide it. They could meet in the middle in just a few years.

The environmental argument

Primarily, the environmental argument for energy harvesting is not saving power stations and their attendant pollution directly. After all, we define EH as powering small electronic devices not acting as a heavy power source for heating, motive power and so on. Information and communication technology (ICT) represent only 2% of the energy consumption in the world but they can lead to huge environmental savings if deployed more widely and appropriately to optimise heavy power creation and handling by utilities and others.

Most notably, 38% of energy is consumed in buildings but it would be much less if electronic controls were cheaper and easier to install. More affordable building controls of longer life are the focus of most of the 70+ companies in the EnOcean energy harvesting alliance. For example, EnOcean, presenting at a recent event, described how they have installed 4200 wireless and battery-less light switches, occupancy sensors and daylight sensors in a new building construction in Madrid. These are powered by energy harvesters and embedded in the building. This saved 40% of lighting energy costs by automatically controlling the lighting in the building, 32 kilometres in cables, 42 000 batteries (over 25 years) and most of the cost of retrofitting.

Batteries usually contain poisons, so the environmental benefits are wide ranging and substantial. Indeed EH is likely to replace many of the 30 billion button batteries sold yearly, many containing poisons. That will involve the exciting new laminar rechargeable batteries and super capacitors for storage of the harvested energy and sometimes the electronics will accept the input from energy harvesting with no storage at all.

The primary motivations for use of energy harvesting, by type of device, are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Examples of the primary motivation to use energy harvesting by type of device
Table 1. Examples of the primary motivation to use energy harvesting by type of device

Market by application sector

IDTechEx has found that consumer applications are and will remain the greatest market for energy harvesting on small devices by value. However, industrial applications will grow fastest and will be at the billion dollar level in 10 years. The segmentation by value projected for 2014, excluding bicycle dynamos and large space vehicles is shown in Figure 1. In addition to military and Third World applications, the ‘Other’ category includes uses in farming and research for example.

Figure 1. Global market value of energy harvesting for small electronic and electrical devices in 2014
Figure 1. Global market value of energy harvesting for small electronic and electrical devices in 2014

Prosperity correlates strongly with education and lighting. The 'one laptop per child' initiative of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and similar initiatives by Intel, the Vellore Institute in India, the Chinese Government and others target sub $100 laptops that are extremely rugged and employ energy harvesting – often several types of harvesting such as photovoltaics and electrodynamics from human power. Equally important are the projects seeking to create ubiquitous radio in the Third World such as the wind-up ‘Freeplay’ versions originating in the UK and delivered through South Africa.

The wind-up torches and lanterns already widely sold in the developed world typically employ batteries for storage and this limits their life to a few years. The more elegant Freeplay technology needs no battery and lifetime may be as much as 20 years. Then there is ubiquitous lighting being sought by Harvard University with Lebônî Solutions in South Africa and backed by the World Bank and others.

Microbial fuel cells

Lebônî Solutions is a social enterprise working in off-grid energy delivery and lighting technology. The mission of Lebônî is to help end the energy and lighting crisis in Africa by identifying and harnessing emerging technologies, developing and adapting them for the African market, and delivering them to rural villages in an innovative and accessible manner. The group was incubated under the tutelage of Professor David Edwards in the Harvard Idea Translation Lab. Lebônî plans to offer more holistic solutions to the pressing problems in developing countries.

One priority is microbial fuel cells (MFCs) which capture energy produced by naturally occurring microbial metabolism. This can generate electricity from organic-rich materials such as soil, manure and food scraps. By contrast, most renewable energy technologies are based on solar or wind power. Unlike these and other natural solutions for generating electricity, the team says MFCs are more reliable – working day or night, rain or shine – and are markedly less expensive.

Radical change in the consumer market

So far, the market for energy harvesting in consumer goods has been largely confined to solar cells on calculators, wristwatches and the like, and dynamos on bicycles. That will now change radically thanks to a huge push to overcome the problem of mobile phones and laptops losing power. This is being aggravated by the trend towards more functionality such as incorporating cameras, video and quality sound, and phones that emulate financial cards or project a video on a wall.

Maybe all wristwatches, cameras, e-books, car keys and other mainstream mobile consumer electronics will adopt energy harvesting and certainly there is much work to create e-labels, e-packaging and electronic skin patches. Low cost energy harvesting has the potential to go way beyond the 60 billion conventional labels printed every year or the $430 billion conventional packaging industry. It can take a bite from the $3 trillion consumer goods industry as a whole. The very success of the button battery, with 30 billion sold yearly on some estimates, is leading to considerable expense and inconvenience in changing them and it is an environmental threat as well. There has to be a better way. Nevertheless, it is very challenging, so wait up to 10 years for massive deployment of energy harvesting in disposable consumer goods.

For more information visit

  Share on Facebook Share via Twitter Share via LinkedIn    

Further reading:

  • Electronics news digest
    25 September 2019, News
    South Africa • The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has awarded South Africa’s IEEE section the prestigious 2019 MGA Outstanding Medium Section Award. The award is in recognition ...
  • Company profile: Harmony Electronics
    25 September 2019, News
    The globalisation of the electronics industry over the last few years has seen tremendous growth in the shipments of semiconductor products worldwide, with more focus on connectivity. Access to components ...
  • Hensoldt merges its SA subsidiaries
    25 September 2019, News
    The company has merged its two South African subsidiaries, GEW Technologies and Hensoldt Optronics South Africa, into the consolidated Hensoldt South Africa brand.
  • Q&A with iPulse Systems
    25 September 2019, iPulse Systems, News
    We asked Gary Chalmers, the CEO of local developer and manufacturer iPulse Systems, to tell us what new and exciting technologies the company has been working on lately.
  • Clearing the static - Topic 7: Moisture management
    25 September 2019, Altico Static Control Solutions, News
    Relative humidity (Rh) is a significant factor contributing to effective static control. When humidity in the working environment decreases, the human body and other insulators can easily charge with ...
  • Start your MCU learning journey today
    25 September 2019, News
    Harmony Electronics offers a course to learn the ANSI ‘C’ embedded control language in just 10 weeks. The training takes place on Saturday mornings over three hours at a cost of R350 per hour (R1050 total ...
  • From the editor's desk: Human brain still better than AI (in some cases)
    25 September 2019, Technews Publishing, News
    Technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), biometrics and others are benefitting from an enormous amount of marketing hype these days, sometimes justifiably and sometimes not.
  • New African AI initiative at Wits University
    25 September 2019, News
    The Molecular Sciences Institute (MSI) at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) in Johannesburg, in partnership with the Cirrus Initiative, recently announced plans for a new artificial intelligence ...
  • Company profile: IC Logistix
    25 September 2019, IC Logistix, News
    IC Logistix was started in 2011 when an opportunity opened up to attain the distribution rights for Fujikura,a Japanese group with a popular range of equipment for the fibre-optic telecommunications market. ...
  • From the editor's desk: Making an aaS of ourselves
    28 August 2019, Technews Publishing, News
    First of all, I must extend the sincere apologies of Technews Publishing to Hi-Q Electronics. We have worked closely with Hi-Q for many years and yet still managed to get its address and contact details ...
  • Electronics news digest
    28 August 2019, News
    South Africa •Canadian technology company Sciencetech is now distributed in South Africa by Intercal. For over 33 years, Sciencetech’s products have been exported to countries around the world, within ...
  • Clearing the static: Electrostatic packaging - Topic 6
    28 August 2019, Altico Static Control Solutions, News
    The purpose of electrostatic discharge (ESD) packaging is to protect ESD-sensitive objects from ESD damage; especially when items are being transported outside of the designated ESD protected area. ESD ...

Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd
1st Floor, Stabilitas House
265 Kent Ave, Randburg, 2194
South Africa
Publications by Technews
Dataweek Electronics & Communications Technology
Electronics Buyers’ Guide (EBG)

Hi-Tech Security Solutions
Hi-Tech Security Business Directory

Motion Control in Southern Africa
Motion Control Buyers’ Guide (MCBG)

South African Instrumentation & Control
South African Instrumentation & Control Buyers’ Guide (IBG)
Terms & conditions of use, including privacy policy
PAIA Manual


    Classic | Mobile

Copyright © Technews Publishing (Pty) Ltd. All rights reserved.