Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services


The power of 2D and 3D X-ray inspection

31 March 2021 Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services

Build the clearest understanding of electronics defects using top-down 2D, inclined-angle 2.5D, and full 3D X-ray inspection. Ever been to see a doctor for an X-ray and a CT scan? This is a common process that allows medical professionals to build a complete picture for diagnosis.

In the electronics world we have similar X-ray techniques for non-destructive failure analysis. A quick 2D X-ray inspection provides a good insight into signs of defective connections, and a 3D CT scan can verify the problem with the added benefits of more data, building the complete picture ready for diagnosis.

BGA (ball grid array) packages are commonly inspected non-destructively utilising X-rays. Each solder joint is an individual electrical connection. A good solder joint will be reasonably circular in shape and the size of the joints should be reasonably consistent throughout the device array.


Figure 2. Ball diameter measurements performed on a BGA device.

Figure 1 shows several different types of defects which may occur during the BGA assembly reflow process. 2D X-ray inspection is a great tool for quick analysis, and one type of analysis that can easily be performed is a ball diameter measurement (Figure 2). Here one can see that the ball on the bottom right is approximately 70 µm smaller in size than its neighbouring joints. This is the first sign that there is a potential problem with this connection.

Figure 3 is a 2.5D oblique-angle image of theses joints. This image builds our diagnosis further, as now we see another sign that this joint is not completely fused on one side. This is seen through a different greyscale displayed on the interface of this joint.

Having identified strong signs that there is potentially a defective connection, this can be verified further with a 3D CT scan. CT is a technique which captures several images from different angles and then uses reconstruction algorithms to create a 3D model. The results of this can be seen in Figure 4.


Figure 3. 2.5D oblique-angle view of the BGA solder joints.

It can clearly be seen that there is a difference in the ball shape highlighted with red arrows compared with surrounding balls. The image to the top right side shows the quality of ball wetting to the device interface. It is clearly seen that there is an interfacial difference compared to neighbouring joints.

Now that both 2D and 3D images have been analysed, there is enough data to build a complete picture and diagnose this BGA device. The solder joint is confirmed as ‘non-wet open’ and as a result this would have significant impact on its integrity, and ultimately the integrity of the BGA device and the product it ends up in.

So whether you are a doctor or are responsible for manufacturing quality, combining 2D and 3D X-ray images makes performing a diagnosis much easier.

For more information contact Techmet, +27 11 824 1427, ,info@techmet.co.za, www.techmet.co.za


Credit(s)



Share this article:
Share via emailShare via LinkedInPrint this page

Further reading:

ICAPE Group enters SA market with acquisition of TRAX
TraX Interconnect News Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
ICAPE Group is implementing its global strategy with its acquisition of TRAX Group in South Africa, resulting in the formation of two new entities: ICAPE–TRAX and ICAPE South Africa. Commenting on the ...

Read more...
PCB supplier NCAB acquires Elmatica
Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
The China-headquartered PCB (printed circuit board) supplier NCAB has acquired 100% of the shares in the Norwegian company Elmatica for SEK 315 million (the equivalent of around R560 million). Elmatica, ...

Read more...
Non-silicone thermal interface material
Vepac Electronics Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
HTC Heat Transfer Compound from Electrolube is a non-silicone thermal interface material recommended where the efficient and reliable thermal coupling of electrical and electronic components is required, ...

Read more...
Inline PCB laser marking machine
MyKay Tronics Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
The S460 series is an inline laser marking machine specifically designed to laser mark printed circuit boards (PCBs) with high positional accuracy and repeatability. It is capable of handling large-format, ...

Read more...
Saki SPI and AOI machines awarded IPC-CFX certification
Techmet Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
Saki, an innovator in the field of automated optical and X-ray inspection equipment, announced that its 3Si solder paste inspection (SPI) and 3Di automated optical inspection (AOI) solutions have been ...

Read more...
3D AOI system for high-end electronics assembly
Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
The ISO-Spector M2 is a new full 3D AOI system with artificial intelligence (AI) for high-end electronics assembly. A fast-to-program solution, the Mek (Marantz Electronics) machine features advanced ...

Read more...
Automatic in-circuit PCB tester
MyKay Tronics Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
The T300 is an automatic, high parallelism in-circuit test system with advanced testing capabilities that its manufacturer, SPEA, claims can boost board production throughput by 10 times. It features ...

Read more...
Flexible X-ray component counter
Techmet Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
Inventory knowledge is essential for modern PCB production. Whether you are an SMT manufacturer, supplier or broker, live monitoring of inventory in your MRP system at all times minimises stock, labour, ...

Read more...
Thermal management in high-performance RF and microwave PCBs
Conical Technologies Editor's Choice Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
One of the many roles that a PCB has to perform is to channel heat from the underside of semiconductor devices through to the chosen heatsinking scheme as efficiently and effectively as possible.

Read more...
PCB traceability enhanced by print-and-apply label system
Manufacturing / Production Technology, Hardware & Services
Electronics manufacturers are continuously looking to improve efficiencies and optimise the use of available resources. Reliable traceability systems that can track and trace any printed circuit board ...

Read more...